The present book acquaints the readers not only with the mathematical models extensively used in physical, biological and social sciences, but also to the generalized optimization theory and techniques applicable to a large area of applied mathematics. Moreover, the book provides deeper insight to information technology providing techniques for processing, the applications of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation through computer programs. In the present era of information technology, it becomes necessary to update the information generated by researchers for the use of scientists, professionals and the industry. The information technology has grown beyond its limits of mathematics to cover a variety of areas of different sciences. In order to keep pace with the latest developments in science and technology, the subject of information science and optimization techniques has to be integrated so as to boost research in other disciplines. Therefore, the present effort is to bring out the volume which can be useful to different disciplines of theoretical sciences.