This book contains information on field and laboratory biology of the sugar cane black beetle, Heteronychus licas (Klug) at Wonji-shoa, Ethiopia. Females laid on average 16 eggs that hatched in 12 days. Larvae passes through three instars differentiated by head capsule width and body length. 1st instar fed on organic detritus in the soil; 2nd and 3rd instars on roots of sugar cane. 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars took 25, 75 and 75 days. At the end of the larval period, it enters a pre-pupal stage that on average lasted for 25 days. There was only one generation a year and sex ration was about 1:1. The beetle preferred maize and Paspalum Spp than Pennisetum spp, Digitaria spp, Hyparrhenia spp and sugar cane itself. The beetle causes severe and fatal damage when it happens at the primary shoot stage. Natural enemies identified attacking the larval stage, even-though persistent insecticides were applied, include a solitary Scoliid parasite, Campsomeriella (Madonimeris) madonensis (Buysson) and unidentified disease of bacterial origin. The author finally suggests earlier plantings at January to mid February as they have showed lower beetle infestations and also lower insect activity.