Brain Function and Oscillations

Volume I: Brain Oscillations. Principles and Approaches
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0. Prologue.- I. Foundations.- 1. Brain Dynamics and Brain Codes.- 1.1 Oscillations as Brain Codes.- 1.2 Resonance Phenomena.- 1.3 Global Brain Dynamics - Our Goal: A "Cloudy Description".- 1.3.1 Statistical Mechanics in Biology and Physics.- 2. Electrical Signals from the Brain.- 2.1 The Brain and Neurons.- 2.1.1 The Neuron Doctrine.- 2.1.2 The Organization of the Neuron.- 2.1.3 The Resting Membrane Potential.- 2.1.4 The Action Potential.- 2.1.5 Postsynaptic Potentials.- 2.2 Principles of Neural Operation.- 2.3 Recording and Classification at the Neuronal Level.- 2.3.1 Extracellular Recording.- 2.3.2 Intracellular Recording.- 2.3.3 A Brief Classification of Nerve Cell Membrane Potentials.- 2.3.4 Definition of the Poststimulus Time Histogram.- 2.4 Electrical Activity of Neural Populations.- 2.4.1 Spontaneous Electrical Activity of the Brain.- 2.4.2 Stereo-EEG (SEEG).- 2.4.3 Evoked Potentials of the Brain.- 2.4.4 Evoked Potentials Are Descriptively Useful as Signs of Dynamics Constituting a Useful Window (Bullock's View).- 2.4.5 Analysis of Single EEG-EP Epochs.- 3. The Brain: Sensory and Cognitive Pathways.- 3.1 Sensory-Cognitive Systems Are Organized in a Hierarchical and Parallel Fashion.- 3.1.1 Convergence and Divergence.- 3.1.2 Parallel Processing.- 3.2 Functional Neuroanatomy of the Auditory Pathway.- 3.2.1 Remarks about Variability in the Human Auditory Areas.- 3.3 Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual Pathway.- 3.4 Thalamic Organization and Cortico-Thalamic Circuits and Global Function of the Thalamus.- 3.5 Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy and Global function.- 3.5.1 Distributed Cortical Systems.- 3.5.2 Association Cortex and Frontal Lobe.- 3.6 Hippocampus: A Supramodal Polysensory System.- 3.6.1 Anatomical Description: Hippocampus and Limbic System.- 3.6.2 A Brief Review of the Function of the Hippocampus.- 3.6.3 Electrophysiology of the Hippocampus.- 3.6.4 Types of Hippocampal Theta Rhythm.- 3.6.5 Output of the Hippocampal Formation.- 3.6.6 Brainstem Modulation of the Hippocampus.- 3.7 Reticular Formation.- 3.7.1 Anatomy.- 3.7.2 Global function.- 3.7.3 Is the Reticular Formation a Polysensory High Command Structure? 4. Brain Dynamics Research Program.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Concept "System".- 4.2.1 State of a System.- 4.2.2 The "Black Box" and the "White Box".- 4.2.3 The Concept of the "Gray Box".- 4.2.4 The "Black Box" and "Gray Box": Approaches to Exploring Brain function.- 4.3 Abstract Methods for Brain System Analysis.- 4.3.1 Abstract Methods for Brain State Analysis.- 4.3.2 Abstract Methods of General Systems Theory.- 4.3.3 New Methods for Studying Oscillatory Brain Potentials.- 4.4 Specific Methods for Analysis of Living Systems.- 4.4.1 Application of Pharmacological Agents.- 4.4.2 Partial Injury of the System.- 4.4.3 Reduction of the System to Its Passive Response.- 4.5 Methods of Thought, or Research Principles.- 4.5.1 Going into the System.- 4.5.2 Going out of the System.- 5. Wavelet Analysis of Brain Waves.- 5.1 Utility and Main Advantages of the Wavelet Method.- 5.2 Description of the Method.- 5.2.1 Spline Basis Functions.- 5.2.2 Discrete B-Splines.- 5.2.3 Spline Wavelet Transform.- 5.3 Results of Wavelet Analysis of EPs.- 5.3.1 Typical Animal.- 5.3.2 Wavelet Analysis of Single Trials.- 5.4 Interpretation of Wavelet Analysis.- 5.5 Role of Wavelet Transform Methods in the Analysis of Functional ERP Components.- 5.6 Selectively Distributed Oscillatory Systems in the Brain.- 6. Phase Locking of Oscillatory Responses: An Informative Approach for Studying Evoked Brain Activity.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Phase-Locked and Non-Phase-Locked Activity.- 6.3 Phase-Locked Activity in the Averaged EPs.- 6.4 Method.- 6.4.1 Identification of Phase Relationships in Single Sweeps.- 6.4.2 Stability of Phase Locking.- 6.4.3 Quantitative Assessment of Phase Locking.- 7. Resonance Phenomena in the Brain, Physical Systems, and Nature.- 7.1 What Is Resonance?.- 7.2 Pioneer Experiments on EEG Brain Resonance Phenomena.- 7.2.1 Visual C
by W. J. Freeman These two volumes on "Brain Oscillations" appear at a most opportune time. As the "Decade of the Brain" draws to its close, brain science is coming to terms with its ultimate problem: understanding the mechanisms by which the immense number of neurons in the human brain interact to produce the higher cognitive functions. The ideas, concepts, methods, interpretations and examples, which are presented here in voluminous detail by a world-class authority in electrophysiology, summarize the intellectual equipment that will be required to construct satisfactory solutions to the problem. Neuroscience is ripe for change. The last revolution of ideas took place in the middle of the century now ending, when the field took a sharp turn into a novel direction. During the preceding five decades the prevailing view, carried forward from the 19th century, was that neurons are the carriers of nerve energy, either in chemical or electrical forms (Freeman, 1995). That point of view was enormously productive in terms of coming to understand the chemical basis for synaptic transmission, the electrochemistry of the ac tion potential, the ionic mechanisms of membrane currents and gates, the functional neuroanatomy that underlies the hierarchy of reflexes, and the neural fields and'their resonances that support Gestalt phenomena. No bet ter testimony can be given of the power of the applications of this approach than to point out that it provides the scientific basis for contemporary neu rology, neuropsychiatry, and brain imaging.