AHA-BUCH

Clinical Applications of Immunotoxins

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ISBN-13:
9783642721557
Einband:
Book
Erscheinungsdatum:
10.12.2011
Seiten:
140
Autor:
Arthur E. Frankel
Gewicht:
223 g
Format:
235x155x7 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

99
List of Contents.- The Emerging Role of Ricin A-Chain Immunotoxins in Leukemia and Lymphoma.- Clinical Trials with Blocked Ricin Immunotoxins.- Saporin Immunotoxins.- Diphtheria Toxin Fusion Proteins.- Clinical Trials with Psedomonas Exotoxin Immunotoxins.- Immunotoxins for Brain Tumor Therapy.- Conclusions.
1 2 D. FITZGERALDI, I. PASTAN , and J. ROBERTUS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 Toxin Structure-Function Properties 2 2. 1 Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. 2 Binding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Intracellular Processing - Cleavage and Reduction . . . . . . 4 3. 1 Cytosolic Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 Immunotoxin Design and Testing. 6 5 Conclusion. . 8 References. . . . . 8 1 Introduction While various treatment approaches for cancer include reversal of the transformed phenotype, stimulation of immune responses, inhibition of metastatic spread and deprivation of key nutrients, the goal of immunotoxin treatment is the direct killing of malignant cells. Because they are enzymatic proteins that act catalytically to kill cells, bacterial and plant toxins are often employed as the cell-killing component of immunotoxins. Here we provide background information into the structure-func tion relationships of toxins and discuss how they can be combined with cell-binding antibodies or other ligands to generate immunotoxins. Bacterial and plant toxins (e. g. , diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin and ricin) are among the most toxic substances known. However, because they bind to cell surface receptors that are present on most normal cells, unmodified toxins are generally useless as anti-cancer agents. To convert toxins into more selective agents, their binding domains are either eliminated or disabled and replaceq with cell binding antibodies that are tumor-selective.