Phonons: Theory and Experiments II
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Phonons: Theory and Experiments II

Experiments and Interpretation of Experimental Results
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Peter Brüesch
445 g
235x155x15 mm

'1. Introduction.- 1.1 General Remarks.- 1.2 Infrared Spectroscopy.- 1.3 Raman Spectroscopy.- 1.4 Brillouin Spectroscopy.- 1.5 Interactions of X-Rays with Phonons.- 1.6 Inelastic Neutron Scattering.- 1.7 Other Techniques.- 2. Infrared Spectroscopy.- 2.1 Experimental Techniques.- 2.1.1 Grating Spectrometers.- 2.1.2 Fourier Interferometers.- 2.2 Dielectric Properties: Classical Treatment.- 2.2.1 Reflectivity, Transmission, Absorptivity and Optical Constants.- 2.2.2 Examples of Reflectivity and Transmission Spectra.- 2.2.3 Evaluation of ?(?) from a Kramers-Kronig Analysis of the Reflectivity.- 2.2.4 Direct Determination of ?(?) from Experimental Data.- 2.2.5 ?(?) from a Model Fit to the Observed Reflectivity.- 2.2.6 Kramers-Kronig Relations and Sum Rules.- 2.2.7 Polaritons and Propagation of Light in Crystals.- 2.3 Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of the Dielectric Constant.- 2.3.1 Qualitative Discussion.- 2.3.2 Relation Between ?2(?) and Transition Probabilities.- 2.3.3 Interaction of a Charged Oscillating Particle with the Radiation Field.- 2.3.4 Quantum Mechanical Formulation of the Dipole Moment of the Crystal.- 2.3.5 One-Phonon Absorption.- 2.3.6 Two-Phonon Processes Due to the Second-Order Dipole Moment Mechanism.- 2.3.7 Two-Phonon Processes Due to Anharmonic Coupling.- 2.4 Problems.- 2.4.1 Dielectric Constant of Diatomic Cubic Crystals.- 2.4.2 Conductivity Sum Rule for Lattice Vibrations.- 2.4.3 Second-Order Dipole Moment.- 3. Raman Spectroscopy.- 3.1 Experimental Techniques.- 3.1.1 Raman-Scattering Apparatus.- 3.1.2 Scattering Configurations.- 3.2 Classical Theory.- 3.2.1 Basic Model.- 3.2.2 The Polarizability Tensor.- 3.2.3 Raman Active and Raman Inactive Modes: Simple Molecules.- 3.2.4 Raman Active and Raman Inactive Modes: Simple Crystals.- 3.3 Quantum Theory.- 3.3.1 Qualitative Discussion.- 3.3.2 The Intensity of the Scattered Light.- 3.3.3 Placzek's Approximation.- 3.3.4 Raman Intensities Based on Placzek's Theory.- 3.3.5 Raman Scattering by Phonon-Polaritons.- 3.4 Problems.- 3.4.1 Polarizability ?(R) of Diatomic Molecules.- 3.4.2 Decomposition of the Scattering Tensor into Its Isotropic, Symmetric, and Antisymmetric Parts.- 3.4.3 Scattering by a Charged Oscillating Particle.- 4. Brillouin Spectroscopy.- 4.1 Experimental Techniques.- 4.2 Kinematics and Origin of Brillouin Scattering.- 4.3 Strain Dependence of Dielectric Constant.- 4.4 Intensities of Brillouin Components.- 4.5 Problems.- 4.5.1 Doppler Effect and Brillouin Frequency Shifts.- 4.5.2 Strain Dependence of ?? Under the Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure for Alkali Halides.- 4.5.3 Brillouin Intensities for Isotropic Solids and Liquids.- 5. Interaction of X-Rays with Phonons.- 5.1 The Static Approximation.- 5.2 Experimental Technique.- 5.3 Interaction Mechanism.- 5.4 Scattering by a Perfectly Ordered Crystal.- 5.5 Thermal Diffuse Scattering for a Bravais Crystal.- 5.6 Thermal Scattering for a Crystal with Basis.- 5.7 The Debye-Waller Factor.- 5.8 Problems.- 5.8.1 Compton Scattering.- 5.8.2 Atomic Scattering Factor.- 5.8.3 Debye-Waller Factor for a Cubic Bravais Crystal.- 5.8.4 Correlation Function.- 6. Inelastic Neutron Scattering.- 6.1 Basic Properties.- 6.1.1 Cross Section.- 6.1.2 Coherent and Incoherent Scattering.- 6.2 Phonon Dispersion-Relation Measurements.- 6.2.1 Coherent Scattering Cross Section.- 6.2.2 Selection Rules.- 6.2.3 Experimental: Triple Axis Spectrometer.- 6.2.4 Examples.- 6.3 Phonon Density of States Measurements.- 6.3.1 Incoherent Scattering Cross Section.- 6.3.2 Examples.- 7. Other Techniques.- 7.1 Ultrasonic Methods.- 7.1.1 Experimental Techniques.- 7.1.2 Ultrasonic Attenuation Due to Phonon-Phonon Interactions.- 7.2 Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.- 7.2.1 Experimental Techniques.- 7.2.2 The Inelastic Electron Current.- 7.2.3 Some Selected Examples of IETS.- 7.3 Point Contact Spectroscopy.- 7.3.1 Experimental Techniques.- 7.3.2 Qualitati
The first part of this three-volume treatment, Phonons: Theory and Exper iments I, has been devoted to the basic concepts of the physics of phonons and to a study of models of interatomic forces. The present second volume, Phonons: Theory and Experiments II, contains a thorough study of experi mental techniques and the interpretation of experimental results. In a third volume we shall treat a number of phenomena which are directly related to lattice dynamics. The aim of this treatment is to bridge the gap between theory and ex periment. Both experimental aspects and theoretical concepts necessary for an interpretation of experimental data are discussed. An attempt has been made to present the descriptive as well as the analytical aspects of the top ics. Although emphasis is placed on the experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of atoms in solids, most chapters also contain a general in troduction to the specific subject. The text is addressed to experimentalists and theoreticians working in the vast field of dynamical properties of solids. It will also prove useful to graduate students starting research in this or related fields. The choice of the topics treated was partly determined by the author's own activity in these areas. This is particularly the case for the chapters dealing with infrared, Raman and inelastic neutron spectroscopy, as well as for some newer developments such as the optical spectroscopy of thin films and adsorbates.