Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders

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M. Alter
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1 Embryogenesis and Genetics of Epidermal Ridges.- 2 Methods of Recording Dermatoglyphics.- Standard Methods.- Ink Methods.- Inkless Methods.- Transparent Adhesive Tape Method.- Photographic Method.- Special Methods.- Hygrophotography.- Radiodermatography.- Plastic Mold.- Automatic Pattern Recognition.- 3 Dermatoglyphic Pattern Configurations.- Ridge Detail (Minutiae).- Pattern Configurations.- Fingers (Fingertip pattern configurations, Dermatoglyphic landmarks, Patterns of middle and proximal phalanges).- Palms (Palmar pattern configuratións, Palmar landmarks).- Toes.- Soles (Plantar pattern configurations, Plantar landmarks).- Quantitative Analysis.- Pattern Intensity.- Ridge Counting (Finger and toe ridge counts, Ridge counts of digital areas, Ridge counting in patterns lacking triradii, Estimation of the ridge count on missing or mutilated finger-tips).- Position of Axial Triradius (atd angle, Measurement of distal deviation, Ridge counting, Breadth ratio).- Main-line Index.- Dermatoglyphic Topology.- Topological Classification of Palmar Dermatoglyphics.- Topological Classification of Plantar Dermatoglyphics.- Frequency of Dermatoglyphic Traits in Normal Populations.- Bilateral Symmetry.- Sex Differences in Dermatoglyphics.- Racial Differences in Dermatoglyphics.- 4 Congenital Malformations of Dermatoglyphics.- Ridge Aplasia.- Ridge Hypoplasia.- Ridge Dissociation.- "Ridges-off-the-end".- 5 Flexion Creases.- Embryology of Flexion Creases.- Classification of Palmar Flexion Creases.- Major Creases.- Minor Creases.- Secondary Creases.- Other Hand Creases (Phalangeal creases, Metacarpophalangeal creases, Wrist creases).- Plantar Flexion Creases.- White Lines.- 6 Medical Disorders with Associated Dermatoglyphic Abnormalities.- Congenital Malformations of Hands and Feet.- Thalidomide Embryopathy.- Absence or Hypoplasia of the Thumbs.- Triphalangy of the Thumbs.- Holt-Oram Syndrome.- Anonychia.- Distal Phalangeal Hypoplasia.- Brachydactyly.- Camptodactyly.- Syndactyly.- Polydactyly.- Other Gross Hand and Foot Malformations.- Autosomal Trisomies.- Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome).- Trisomy 18.- Trisomy 13.- Trisomy 8 Mosaicism.- Aberrations of Sex Chromosomes.- Monosomy of the X Chromosome (Turner Syndrome).- Polysomies of the X and Y Chromosomes (Klinefelter Phenotype).- Polysomies of the Y Chromosome.- Polysomies of the X Chromosome.- Triploidy.- Structural Chromosomal Aberrations.- Deletion of the Short Arm of Chromosome 5 (Cri-du-chat Syndrome).- Deletion of the Short Arm of Chromosome 4 (Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome).- Deletions of Chromosome 18.- Single-Gene Disorders and Disorders with Uncertain Genetic Transmission.- de Lange Syndrome.- Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome.- Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome.- Cleft Lip and Palate.- Cerebral Gigantism.- Nongenetic and Exogenous Factors.- Rubella Embryopathy.- Leukemia.- Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease.- Celiac Disease.
The skin on the fingertips and palmar and plantar surfaces of man is not smooth. It is grooved by curious ridges, which form a variety of configurations. These ridge configurations have attracted the at tention of laymen for millenia. They have also evoked the serious interest of scientists for more than three centuries. The anatomist Bidloo provided a description of ridge detail in the seventeenth cen tury. Since then, additional information has been added by anthro pologists, biologists, and geneticists. For the last century, the fact that each individual's ridge configurations are unique has been uti lized as a means of personal identification especially by law enforce ment officials. Widespread medical interest in epidermal ridges de veloped only in the last several decades when it became apparent that many patients with chromosomal aberrations had unusual ridge formations. Inspection of skin ridges, therefore, promised to provide a simple, inexpensive means for determining whether a given patient had a particular chromosomal defect. However, the promise was only partially fulfilled because of the inherent variability of skin ridge configurations. It was possible to draw conclusions about ridge ab normalities in groups of patients but not always in a given individual. Patients and clinicians became somewhat disenchanted with the clinical value of studying ridges.

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