AHA-BUCH

Detection and Signal Processing

Technical Realization
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ISBN-13:
9783540295990
Einband:
Book
Erscheinungsdatum:
20.03.2006
Seiten:
173
Autor:
Wilhelmus Jacobus Witteman
Gewicht:
403 g
Format:
242x165x19 mm
Serie:
22, Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Basic knowledge for all physicists, astronomers, engineers involved in detection techniques
Random Fluctuations.- Signal Noise Relations.- Thermal Detectors.- Vacuum Photodetectors.- Semiconductor Photodetectors.- Correlation Analyses.- Signal Processing.- Heterodyne Detection.- Fast Detection of Weak and Noisy Signals.
Thewritingofthisbookhasbeeninspiredbytheexperienceofteachinga courseonDetectionandSignalProcessingtograduatestudentsoveraperiod ofmanyyears. Itwasstrikingthatstudentswerenotonlyfascinatedbythe variousdetectionprinciplesandtechnicalperformancesofpracticalsystems, butalsobytheprofessionalismoftheinvolved typical physicalengine- ing. Usuallystudentsarethoroughlytaughtindi?erentcoursesofphysics, whicharemostlystudiedasisolated?elds. Thecourseondetectionands- nalprocessingisbasedontypicalresultsthatwereestablishedindi?erent disciplines like optics, solid state physics, thermodynamics, mathematical statistics,Fouriertransforms,andelectroniccircuitry. Theirsimultaneousand interdependentapplicationbroadenstheinsightofmutualrelationsinthev- ious?elds. Forinstancethe?uctuationsofthermalbackgroundradiationcan bederivedeitherwiththeblackbodytheoryorindependentlywithther- dynamicstoarriveatthesameresult. AlsotheappliedFourierrelationsin thefrequencyandtimedomainsarenolongerabstractmathematicalman- ulationsbutpracticaltoolsandprobablyeasiertounderstandintheapplied technique. Estimatesoftheorderofmagnitudeswithcomparisonofrelevant physicale?ectsnecessarybydesigningadeviceareveryinstructive. Ingeneral theachievementsofvariousdisciplinesarebroughttogethertodesignandto evaluatequantitativelythetechnicalperformancesofdetectiontechniques. Thustheinterestfordetectionandsignalprocessingisbothtolearnthe knowledgefordesigningpracticaldetectionsystemsandtogetacquainted withthethinkingofphysicalengineering. The?rstpartofthebookisdevotedtonoisephenomenaandradiation detectors. Fundamentaldescriptionswithquantitativeanalysesoftheund- lyingphysicalprocessesofbothdetectorsandaccompanyingnoiseleadto understandthepotentialswithrespecttosensitivityandoperatingfrequency domain. Thesecondpartdealswithampli?cationproblemsandtherecovery ofrepetitivesignalsburiedinnoise. Thelastpartisdevotedtosolvingthe problemsconnectedwithreachingtheultimatedetectionlimitorquantum limit. Thisisdoneforheterodynedetectionandphotoncounting. Although VIII Preface heterodynedetectionyieldstheultimatesensitivity,itsspatialmodesel- tivityand,ingeneral,thelowspectralpowerdensityofthesignalrequire sophisticatedprovisions. Thisisdiscussedindetail. Theinherentproblemsare analyzedandappropriatetechnicalsolutionsaredescribedtoreachtheul- matesensitivityfordetectingincoherentradiationandcommunicationsignals thatarerandomlyDopplershifted. Theresultsareillustratedwithexamples ofspacecommunication. Hengelo(O),January2006 W. J. Witteman Contents 1 RandomFluctuations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 ThermalNoiseofResistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 ShotNoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. 3. 1 SpectralDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. 3. 2 Photons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 4 FlickerNoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 5 Generation RecombinationNoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 6 ThermalRadiationandItsFluctuations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. 7 TemperatureFluctuationsofSmallBodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1. 7. 1 AbsorptionandEmissionFluctuations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2 Signal NoiseRelations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2. 1 SignalLimitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. 2 BackgroundLimitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. 2. 1 IdealDetection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. 3 JohnsonNoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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