Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS).The aim of this special collection of 46 peer-reviewed papers was to reveal the state-of-the-art trends in the understanding of the fundamental aspects of interactions between laser beams and materials, and the modelling and simulation of laser and plasma materials surface transformation and processing. A useful guide to the subject.The 46 studies were selected from presentations at the third international conference, LAPAMS 2010, held in Algiers in November 2010. The invited papers discuss computing simulations of laser ablation, plume expansion, and plasma formation; light scattering techniques applied to materials science; and the numerical study of butt joining by coaxial powder injection. The other areas covered are laser matter processing, materials for telecommunication application, laser induced plasma, laser technology for materials science and the environment, modeling materials processing and microstructures, and plasma discharge. Among specific topics are the angular distribution and ion time of flight produced on a silicon target by laser irradiation, the high-intensity ablation of titanium targets, and the effect of argon ambient gas pressure on plume expansion dynamics.