Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS).This collection addresses specific topics within the field of stress measurement in solids using neutrons, X-rays and synchrotron radiation. Particular attention is paid to multidisciplinary approaches involving an understanding of the measured stress field and the implications of the stress field for the behaviour of materials and components.Advances in instrumentation, experimental techniques, data evaluation, modelling and simulation are presented by scientists from all over the world. The scientific community working in this challenging field of research is significantly increasing. The discussion of past achievements, and of planned future research, demonstrates the evolution of this research-area, and the scientific as well as technological potential of stress measurement in solids.This volume is a collection of selected peer-reviewed papers from the MECASENS IV conference on stress evaluation on materials by neutron and synchrotron radiation held in Vienna, Austria, on September 24- 26, 2007. The papers, prepared by scientists in both academia and industry, cover a variety of related topics, including processing, plasticity, methods, ceramics, welds, composites, and thin films. Papers also include discussions of advances in instrumentation, experimental techniques, data evaluation, modeling, and simulation. The collection was edited by Degischer (materials science and technology, Vienna U. of Technology) and Pyzalla and Borbely (material diagnostics and steel technology, Max Planck Institut fur Eisenforschung GmBH).