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Engineering the User Interface
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Engineering the User Interface

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ISBN-13:
9781848001367
Einband:
Ebook
Erscheinungsdatum:
01.06.2009
Seiten:
277
Autor:
Crescencio Bravo
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
PDF
Kopierschutz:
1 - PDF Watermark
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

"This book contains a collection of the best papers presented at the VII International Conference on Interacción Persona-Ordenador (IPO), a multidisciplinary forum for the discussion and dissemination of novelty research in Human-Computer Interaction. The main goal of Interacción 2006 was to expand the conference scope with internationally recognised invited speakers. Other goals such as enriching the relationship between industry and academia, and incorporating workshops and tutorials of quality to the conference structure were also achieved.

This book is organised according to the main areas of both basic and applied research that were presented at the conference. These areas were: Ergonomics and Human Factors, Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence, User-Centred Design, Usability and Accessibility, Systems and Models for Collaboration, Interaction in Teaching and Learning, Design and Development of User Interfaces, Virtual and Augmented Reality, Interaction and People with Special Needs."
"Creativity Support Tools: A Grand Challenge for HCI Researchers .......................................................................................1
1 Introduction.................................................................................1
2 Theory of Creativity ...................................................................2
3 Creative Processes ......................................................................2
4 Principles of Design for Creativity Support Tools .....................4
5 Creativity and Cognition 2007 Conference ................................5
6 U. S. National Science Foundation Efforts.................................6
7 Near-term Outcomes...................................................................7
References......................................................................................8

Integrating Learning Processes Across Boundaries of Media,
Time and Group Scale ...................................................................11
1 Introduction: Starting Point and First Orientation ....................12
2 Media Integration in the Classroom .........................................13
3 Process Integration and Explicit Learning Process Modelling.16
4 "Learning-Design by Example"................................................17
5 Learning Objects and Learning Communities..........................20
6 Extending the Notion of "Communication through Artefacts" to Asynchronous Settings ............................................................... 21
7 The COLDEX Project.............................................................. 22
8 Challenge-based Learning ....................................................... 24
9 Contextualised Indexing and Retrieval.................................... 25
10 Summary and Perspectives .................................................... 26
References................................................................................... 27

Optimal Cost Haptic Devices for Driving Simulators................ 29
1 Introduction.............................................................................. 29
2 Haptic Devices......................................................................... 31
3 Control Board .......................................................................... 30
4 System Architecture................................................................. 32
5 Force Contact Models.............................................................. 33
5.1 Normal Force Model......................................................... 33
5.2 Tangential Force Models .................................................. 34
5.2.1 Non-Conservative Tangent Force Models ................. 34
5.2.2 Conservative tangential force model.......................... 34
5.3 Force Model to Render the Behaviour of Haptic Devices 35
6 Experimental Results ............................................................... 36
7 Conclusions.............................................................................. 38
Acknowledgments............................................................... 39
References................................................................................... 39

Interference of Auditory Information with Haptic Perception of Stiffness in Virtual Reality............................................................ 41
1 Introduction.............................................................................. 41
2 Method..................................................................................... 43
2.1 Subjects ............................................................................. 43
2.2 Material ............................................................................. 44
2.3 Procedure .......................................................................... 44
3 Results...................................................................................... 46
4 Discussion................................................................................ 49
5 Conclusion ............................................................................... 50
Acknowledgments............................................................... 51
References................................................................................... 51

Towards Implicit Interaction in Ambient Intelligence through Information Mosaic Roles............................................................. 53
1 Introduction...............................................................................53
2 Towards Implicit Interaction ...................................................54
3 Pervasive Display Systems .......................................................55
4 Interaction and Information Visualization Services .................56
4.1 ViMos, our Information Visualization Service..................56
4.2 Architecture and Implementation ......................................57
4.3 Information Mosaics Roles & Interaction..........................58
5 Conclusions...............................................................................61
Acknowledgments................................................................62
References....................................................................................62

Towards the Achievement of Natural Interaction.......................63
1 Introduction...............................................................................63
2 The Cognitive Approach...........................................................64
3 Dialogue Model Role within Natural Interaction Systems.......67
4 Intentional Management and the Threads Model .....................68
4.1 Dialogue Manager Architecture.........................................68
4.2 Intentional Processing in the Threads Model.....................69
4.3 The Threads Model Components.......................................72
5 Knowledge on Circumstances: the Situation Model ................73
5.1 Spatio-Temporal Database Paradigm ................................73
5.2 Situation Modeling proposal..............................................75
6 System Implementation ............................................................76
7 Conclusions...............................................................................79
References....................................................................................79

Science Learning in Blind Children through Audio-Based Games ..............................................................................................81
1 Introduction...............................................................................81
2 Learning through games and simulations .................................82
2.1 The AudioLink software ....................................................83
2.2 Representing the environment ...........................................85
3 Methodology.............................................................................88
4 Usability Evaluation .................................................................89
5 Scenario and Sample.................................................................90
6 Instruments ...............................................................................90
7 Procedure ..................................................................................91
8 Results.......................................................................................92
8.1 Cognitive Evaluation ........................................................ 94
9 Conclusions and Future Work ................................................. 94
References................................................................................... 95

Towards the Introduction of Accessibility Resources in Public Telecentres...................................................................................... 97
1 Introduction.............................................................................. 98
1.1 Contribution and Plan of the Chapter ............................... 98
2 The Telecentres Network and the Òmnia Project.................... 99
2.1 The Òmnia Project ............................................................ 99
2.2 Telecentres Network and the NODAT Project ............... 101
3 Accessible Telecentres: the Accessible Computer Project.... 102
3.1 Some Previous Work in Spain ........................................ 102
3.2 Our Philosophy ............................................................... 103
3.3 Assistive Technology Used............................................. 103
3.4 HCI Measures ................................................................. 104
3.4.1 Pointer control performance analysis....................... 104
4 Our Experience ...................................................................... 105
4.1 Disability Profiles ........................................................... 106
4.1.1 Impaired Vision........................................................ 106
4.1.2 Motor Problems........................................................ 106
4.2 Preliminary Experimental Results .................................. 107
5 Conclusions............................................................................ 109
Disclaimer and Acknowledgments.................................... 109
References................................................................................. 109

Access Control Model for Collaborative Business Processes .. 111
1 Introduction............................................................................ 111
2 Related Works ....................................................................... 113
2.1 DAC - Discretionary Access Control Model .................. 113
2.2 MAC - Mandatory Access Control Model...................... 114
2.3 RBAC - Role Based Access Control............................... 114
2.4 TBAC - Task Based Access Control .............................. 116
3 Organization Model ............................................................... 117
4 An Architectural Proposal to Manage the Access Control.... 119
4.1 Web Service Authorization............................................. 121
4.2 Web Service Task Manager ............................................ 122
4.3 Web Service Session....................................................... 123
5 Conclusions and Future Work ................................................125
Acknowledgments..............................................................125
References..................................................................................125

An Ontology to Model Collaborative Organizational Structures in CSCW Systems.........................................................................127
1 Introduction.............................................................................127
2 Related Works ........................................................................128
3 The Ontology: Why and How.................................................130
4 An Ontology to Describe Organizational Structures and Interactions among Collaborators within a CSCW Environment ................131
4.1 Organizational Items: Collaborators ................................132
4.2 Organizational Relationships ...........................................133
4.3 Objectives ........................................................................134
4.4 Tasks ................................................................................135
5 Organizational Structures Metamodel ....................................137
6 Conclusions.............................................................................138
References..................................................................................139

Semantic Web Query Authoring for End-Users........................141
1 Introduction.............................................................................141
2 Related Work ..........................................................................142
2.1 Information Retrieval.......................................................143
2.2 Knowledge Building ........................................................143
3 A Visual Language for Querying and Authoring Ontologies.145
3.1 Elements of the Visual Language ....................................145
3.2 Interaction ........................................................................148
4 System Architecture................................................................150
5 Conclusions.............................................................................153
Acknowledgments..............................................................154
References..................................................................................154

A Methodological Approach for Building Multimodal Acted Affective Databases ......................................................................157
1 Introduction.............................................................................157
2 Related Work ..........................................................................158
3 RekEmozio Database..............................................................159
3.1 Database Description .......................................................159
3.1.1 Scope .........................................................................162
3.1.2 Naturalness............................................................... 163
3.1.3 Context ..................................................................... 165
3.1.4 Descriptors ............................................................... 165
3.1.5 Accessibility............................................................. 165
3.2 Recording Procedure....................................................... 166
3.2.1 Environment............................................................. 166
3.2.2 Tools......................................................................... 166
3.2.3 Procedure.................................................................. 167
3.3 Outcome.......................................................................... 169
4 An Application of RekEmozio Database for Automatic Emotion Recognition in Speech ............................................... 170
5 Conclusions and Future Work ............................................... 171
Acknowledgments............................................................. 171
References................................................................................. 171

Audiovisual Analysis and Synthesis for Multimodal Human-Computer Interfaces ................................................................... 175
1 Introduction............................................................................ 175
2 Audiovisual HCI Front Ends ................................................. 176
2.1 Audiovisual Synthesis ............................................... 177
2.2 Joint Audiovisual Synthesis ...................................... 177
3 Extracting Audiovisual Bases................................................ 178
3.1 Extracting AV bases by PCA .................................... 179
3.2 Extracting AV bases by NMF ................................... 180
4 Audiovisual Synthesis upon the Extracted Bases.................. 182
5 Experiments ........................................................................... 183
5.1 Audio Parameterization .................................................. 183
5.2 Illustration of the Audiovisual Bases.............................. 184
5.3 Objective Evaluation of Audiovisual Resynthesis.......... 184
5.4 Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Resynthesis ........ 185
6 Conclusions............................................................................ 187
Acknowledgments............................................................. 188
References................................................................................. 188

Creation and Evaluation of a Virtual and Collaborative Playground ................................................................................... 191
1 Introduction............................................................................ 191
1.1 Related work ................................................................... 192
1.2 Experiment goals .............................................................192
1.3 Road map .........................................................................193
2 Environment Model ................................................................193
2.1 Basic Elements.................................................................193
2.2 Users and Actions ............................................................194
2.3 Object Views....................................................................195
2.3.1 The Appearance view................................................195
2.3.2 The Interaction views................................................195
3 Application of the Model to CVRPrismaker ..........................196
3.1 Users and Actions ............................................................197
3.2 Object Views....................................................................197
3.3 Architecture Overview.....................................................198
4 Data-Sharing Mechanism .......................................................199
4.1 Hardware Platforms Tested..............................................199
5 Evaluation ...............................................................................200
5.1 Task Design .....................................................................200
5.2 Participants.......................................................................201
5.3 Experiment Procedure......................................................201
5.4 Results and Analysis ........................................................201
6 Conclusions and Future Work ................................................204
Acknowledgments..............................................................205
References..................................................................................205

Presentation Adaptation: Results from a Case Study...............207
1 Introduction.............................................................................207
2 About the Iconographic Programme.......................................208
3 Related Work ..........................................................................209
4 Description of our Work.........................................................209
4.1 First Test ..........................................................................210
How we did the test:...........................................................210
Results of the first test:.......................................................212
4.2 Second Test......................................................................215
How we did the test:...........................................................215
Results of the second test ...................................................216
5 Conclusions and Future Work ................................................217
References..................................................................................218

Improving a Zoom+Pan Interface with Overview+Detail or Focus+Context Features: A Comparative Evaluation ............ 221
1 Introduction............................................................................ 221
2 Description of the Interfaces.................................................. 222
2.1 The Zoom+Pan Interface with Overview+Detail Features223
2.2 The Zoom+Pan Interface with Focus+Context Features 224
2.2.1 Analysis of F+c Techniques Based on the
Requirements of our Domain ............................................ 224
2.2.2 Description of R-Zoom ............................................ 225
3 Description of the Evaluation ................................................ 227
3.1 Apparatus ........................................................................ 227
3.2 Participants...................................................................... 228
3.3 Method, Procedure and Experimental Design ................ 228
4 Results.................................................................................... 229
4.1 Verifying Quality of Data ............................................... 230
4.2 Effectiveness in Target Acquisition................................ 231
4.3 Efficiency in Target Acquisition..................................... 232
4.4 User's Satisfaction........................................................... 234
5 Conclusions............................................................................ 235
Acknowledgments............................................................. 236
References................................................................................. 236

aCaSo: A Card Sorting Management & Analysis Tool ........... 239
1 Introduction............................................................................ 239
1.1 The Aragonese Laboratory of Usability.......................... 240
1.2 The group of applications WebA.................................... 241
2 The Technique of Card Sorting ............................................. 241
2.1 Methods of Data Analysis............................................... 242
2.1.1 Methods based on Clustering ................................... 243
2.1.2 Scaling methods or multidimensional scaling (MDS)244
2.1.3 Other methods for Data Analysis............................. 245
3 The Application aCaSo (application for Card Sorting) ......... 245
3.1 Types of aCaSo Users..................................................... 246
3.2 Steps to be Carried out for the Realization of a Session. 246
4 Validation of the Analysis Methods ...................................... 251
5 A Real Case of Study............................................................. 252
6 Conclusions and Future Work ............................................... 252
Acknowledgments............................................................. 253
References..................................................................................253

Intelligent User Interfaces: Past, Present and Future...............255
1 Introduction.............................................................................255
2 The Different Facets of a User Interface ................................256
3 Intelligent User Interfaces.......................................................258
3.1 Intelligent User Interfaces Goals .....................................259
3.2 Intelligent User Interface Development...........................260
4 Envisioning the Future: Current Challenges...........................262
5 Conclusions.............................................................................263
Acknowledgments..............................................................263
References..................................................................................263"
Digital Divide (DD) is a term that defines the division between people, commu- ties, states, countries, etc. with respect to the access to the new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Nowadays, it is essential to have tech- logical skills to work in a variety of jobs (i. e. administration, education, etc. ). Moreover, ICTs have become ubiquitous and they affect almost every aspect of our daily life. The way in which people face the task of using ICTs varies depending on a plethora of variables. The most analysed ones are the technological literacy and the educational level. These are two very important factors that strongly affect the success of the individuals in accessing ICTs. Unfortunately, these are not the only variables to consider. Some people suffer from mental and physical disabilities that are real impediments to access ICTs, and they must be studied in detail. How can we help disabled people to access ICTs? Can public telecentres deal with this task? Can the ICTs be used to improve the accessibility of disabled people? Which projects aim to reduce the digital divide? Are they addressed to disabled people? These are some of the questions that we will try to answer, at least partially, in this chapter. We believe that governments must invest to avert the DD, but they are not the only actors involved in this scenario.

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