Origins of the Campaign/Chronology/Opposing Commanders/Opposing Armies/Opposing Plans/Torres Vedras/The Winter fighting/The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro/Aftermath/Bibliography/Index
In October 1810 the Allied position in Portugal appeared precarious. Despite defeating Marshal Masséna's French army at Bussaco, Wellington had been forced to retreat to within a few miles of Lisbon. Here the French encountered a massive line of fortifications stretching from the River Tagus to the sea. Built amid great secrecy and on Wellington's specific orders, these Lines of Torres Vedras were the French high-water mark. In February, with his army on the point of starvation, Masséna was forced to retreat and the scene was set for the climactic action of Fuentes de Oñoro.