Standards for Fats & Oils
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Standards for Fats & Oils

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Harry W. Lawson
374 g
229x152x mm
.5, The L. J. Minor foodservice standards series

I Fat and Oil Technology.- 1 Definitions and Overview.- Text.- 2 The Basic Chemical Structure of Fats and Oils.- Text.- 3 Common Chemical Reactions.- Hydrolysis.- Hydrogenation.- Oxidation.- Polymerization.- Interesterification.- 4 Physical Properties.- General Overview.- Flavor.- Melting Point.- Plasticity.- Fluidity of Fluid Shortenings.- Color.- Oiliness.- Viscosity.- Emulsification.- Specific Gravity.- 5 Sources of Fats and Oils.- Butterfat.- Lard.- Tallow.- Soybean Oil.- Cottonseed Oil.- Sunflower Oil.- Coconut Oil.- Peanut Oil.- Olive Oil.- Corn Oil.- Safflower Oil.- Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil.- 6 Processing Technology.- Extracting the Oil.- Oil Purchase.- Oil Receiving.- Refining.- Bleaching.- Hydrogenation.- Winterizing (Fractionating).- Deodorizing.- Plasticizing.- Packaging.- 7 Analytical Tests.- Active Oxygen Method (AOM).- Color, Lovibond.- Free Fatty Acids (% FFA).- Iodine Value (IV).- Monoglyceride.- Peroxide Value (PV).- Smoke Point.- Flavor.- Frylife.- II Utilization of Food Fats for Foodservice.- 8 Deep Fat Frying.- The Importance of Deep Fat Frying in Foodservice.- The General Mechanism of Deep Frying.- Fat Changes and Reactions During Frying.- Good Frying Practices.- The Frying Fat.- Food Preparation.- Proper Use of Frying Equipment.- Troubleshooting.- Frying Equipment.- Pressure Fryers.- Troubleshooting Information for Pressure Frying.- Filtration of Fats and Oils.- Procedures for Frying Major Food Items.- Quantity Recipes for Deep-fried Foods.- 9 Griddling and Pan Frying.- Foodservice Griddling.- Pan Frying.- Quantity Recipes for Griddling and Pan Frying.- 10 Salad Oil/Cooking Oil.- Salad Types.- Basic Parts of a Salad.- Preparation of the Major Components.- Pointers for a Good Salad.- Major Salad Dressings.- Standards for Producing High-quality Dressing.- Quantity Recipes for Salad Dressings.- 11 Baking Technology.- Cake Baking: General.- Functions of Ingredients in Baking.- Cake-making Technology.- Basic Cake Formulas (Quantity Cake Recipes).- Icing/Frosting Technology.- Standard Icing Formulas.- Pie Dough Technology.- Pie Crust Formulas.- Cookie Technology.- Typical Formulas.- Sweet Dough Technology.- 12 Doughnut Technology.- The Mechanics of the Deep-frying Process.- Doughnut Classification.- Principles of Good Doughnut Production.- Principal Characteristics of Doughnut-frying Shortening.- Quantity Recipe Section.- 13 All-Purpose Baking.- Importance of Shortening.- Quantity Recipes.- III Dietary Considerations and Research and Development Techniques.- 14 Nutritional Aspects of Fats and Oils.- Caloric Functions.- Noncaloric Functions.- Essential Fatty Acids.- Metabolism of Fats and Oils.- Fat Level in the Diet.- Diet and Cardiovascular Disease.- Diet and Cancer.- Effect of Hydrogenation Processing.- Other Areas of Current Research Interest.- Kosher Dietary Regulations.- 15 Research and Development.- The Design of Successful New Food Products.- Other Factors in New Product Development.- Sensory Testing.- Flavoring Shortenings and Oils: Scope, Personnel Selection, and General Condition.- Mechanics of Flavoring.- The Theory of Flavor Perception.- Flavor Discrimination and Classification.
This book was written as a basic reference textbook for students in the schools of hotel, restaurant, and institutional management. It is also designed to be a reference and further study guide for cooks, chefs, dietitians, and foodservice management personnel who are already employed in this important industry. There are many texts available that thoroughly cover, in great depth, the chemistry and technical aspects of fats and oils. However, the author is not aware of any text devoted exclusively to fats and oils for foodservice. Therefore, this book is designed to provide just enough technical background to allow an under standing of how and why certain types of fats and oils work for specific uses in foodservice. This leads to practical applications and standards for the various types of products available for such uses as deep frying, griddling, pan frying, salad dressing, and baking. Tested quantity recipes are included as a further guide to product usage and menu expansion. This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the chemistry and general technical background for fats and oils. Part II covers the major practical applications in foodservice, along with recipes. In Part III, nutrition, dietary considerations, product and recipe Qevelopment techniques, and sanitary and quality control procedures are considered. Fats and oils playa very important role in all foodservice operations. This book will provide the information necessary for a good understanding of these products and how they should be used.