Ion Channels and Ion Pumps
-46 %

Ion Channels and Ion Pumps

Metabolic and Endocrine Relationships in Biology and Clinical Medicine
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Piero P. Foa
912 g
235x155x32 mm

Preface.- Contributors.- 1. The Molecular Structure and Gating of Calcium Channels.- Multiplicity of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels.- Structure of a Skeletal Muscle L-Type Calcium Channel.- The Roles of D HP-Binding Proteins in Skeletal Muscle.- Homologous Calcium Channels.- Gating of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels.- Structure-Function Relationships of VDCCs.- Regulation of Calcium Channels.- Conclusion.- 2. Calcium Signals in Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Death.- Cell Cycle Signals.- Liver Regeneration.- Keratinocytes.- 3. Role of Calcium in Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Exocrine Glands.- Requirement for Calcium in Exocrine Secretion.- Calcium Entry, Release, and Efflux Mechanisms.- Cellular Mechanisms Involved in Agonist-Stimulated Increases in Intracellular Calcium in Exocrine Cells.- Summary and Conclusions.- 4. Calcium Channels, the Pancreatic Islet, and Endocrine Secretion.- Ion Channels in ß Cells.- Calcium Channels in a Cells.- Conclusions.- 5. Calcium Channels in Cells of the Anterior Pituitary.- General Properties of Calcium Channels in Pituitary Cells.- Calcium Channels in Pituitary Lactotrophs.- Calcium Channels in Somatotrophs.- Calcium Channels in Corticotrophs and Thyrotrophs.- Calcium Channels in Gonadotrophs.- Conclusion.- 6. Role of Calcium in the Secretion of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide.- The Langendorff Preparation.- Isolated Atrial Preparations.- Cardiomyocytes in Culture.- 7. Intracellular Ca2+ and Insulin Action: Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Syndrome X.- Physiologic Regulation of the Intracellular Calcium Concentration.- The Role of [Ca2+]i in Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance.- Abnormal [Ca2+]i Homeostasis in Diabetes.- Abnormal [Ca2+]i Homeostasis in Hypertension and Obesity.- Abnormal [Ca2+]i and Syndrome X.- High [Ca2+]i and Atherosclerosis.- Conclusions.- 8. [Ca2+]i and Contraction of Arterial Smooth Muscle.- Regulation of Myoplasmic [Ca2+].- Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation ([Ca2+]i Sensitivity).- Regulation of Contractile Force (The Latch Phenomenon).- Conclusion.- 9. Autoimmunity Against the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and the Presynaptic Calcium Channel at the Neuromuscular Junction.- Myasthenia Gravis and Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: A Brief History.- The Autoantigen in MG: Structure of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.- The Autoantigen in LEMS: Structure and Function of the co-Conotoxin-Sensitive VOCC.- The Effectors of Myasthenic Symptoms: Autoantibodies Against Membrane Proteins Involved in the Cholinergic Transmission.- B and T Epitopes on the AChR Molecule.- Pathogenetic Mechanisms in MG.- Pathogenetic Mechanisms of LEMS.- Possible Similarities in the Pathogenesis of LEMS and MG.- 10. Clinical Pharmacology of Calcium Channels.- Classification of Plasmalemmal Calcium Channels.- Classification of Calcium Channel Modulators.- Clinical Profile and Tissue Selectivity.- Basis for Tissue Selectivity of L-Channel Antagonists.- Clinical Use of Ca2+ Antagonists.- Conclusion.- 11. Hormonal Modulation of Sodium Pump Activity: Identification of Second Messengers.- Adrenal Glomerulosa Cells.- Heart.- Skeletal Muscle.- Liver.- HeLa Cells Transfected with the 5-HT1A Receptor.- Platelets.- Neurons.- Kidney.- Rat Brain Synaptosomes.- Adipocytes.- Summary.- 12. Endogenous Regulation of Sodium Pump Activity.- Volume Expansion and Sodium Pump Inhibitor.- Sodium Pump Inhibitor and Hypertension.- Cellular Mechanisms Linking Hypertension, Fluid Balance, and the Sodium Pump.- The Search for an Endogenous Digitalis-Like Factor (EDLF).- Possible Sources of Endogenous Digitalis-Like Factor.- Sodium Pump Inhibition in the Clinical Setting.- Conclusion.- 13. Structure, Gating, and Clinical Implications of the Potassium Channel.- An Approach to the Study of Potassium Channels.- Biophysical Properties.- Different Types of Potassium Channel Conductance.- Clinical Implications.- Conclusions.- 14. Potassium Channels in Skeletal Muscle.- Ionic Channels in Skel
Omnis cellula e cellula, "every cell from a cell," was dogma to the 19th century cellular physiologist and the cornerstone of Virchow's Cellular pathologie. "Spread out a cell into a layer and you will find that, in ceasing to be a cell, it has ceased to act as such," wrote the British 1 physiologist G . R. Lewes more than a century age. "The cell remains vital as long as its wall remains intact . . . " keeping its content "pure and clear" and thus preserving the "vital principle" within, echoed Claude 2 Bernard a few years later. The notion of the cell membrane as a pro tecting envelope held sway until it became clear that it could not account for the "coalescence" of poorly differentiated embryonic "vesicles" and for their transformation into "cell-like structures" capable of auto regulation and yet subject to what the grandfather of one of us defined as the "federal obligations imposed by the whole organism. ,,3 A new concept was needed, and soon the membrane was described as a structure capable of uniting as well as separating adjacent cells. Morphologic evidence for this dual function was obtained several years later when the electron microscope revealed the existence of tight and gap junc tions which, acting as intercellular bonds and channels, allowed the cells to communicate with one another and thus coordinate their biologic activities.