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An Introduction to Social Psychology

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William McDougall
Dover Publications
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The position of psychology at the basis of all the social sciences now theoretically recognised but practically ignored Historical explanation of this anomalous state of affairs Illustrations of the need of the social sciences for better psychological foundations Ethics Economics Political science Philosophy of history JurisprudenceSECTION I THE MENTAL CHARACTERS OF MAN OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE FOR HIS LIFE IN SOCIETY CHAPTER II THE NATURE OF INSTINCTS AND THEIR PLACE IN THE CONSTITUTION OF THE HUMAN MIND The vagueness of current conceptions of instinct The lack of agreement as to the rôle of instincts in the human mind "Instinctive process is truly mental, and involves knowing and feeling as well as doing" "The physiological conception of an instinct as an innate disposition, having three parts corresponding to these three functions" The modification of instincts on their afferent and efferent sides The relation of instinct to emotion Instincts the prime movers of all human activitySOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER III THE PRINCIPAL INSTINCTS AND THE PRIMARY EMOTIONS OF MAN Three principles mainly relied upon in distinguishing the primary emotions The instinct of flight and the emotion of fear The instinct of repulsion and the emotion of disgust The instinct of curiosity and the emotion of wonder The instinct of pugnacity and the emotion of anger "The instincts of self-abasement (or subjection) and of self-assertion (or self-display), and the emotions of subjection and elation (or negative and positive self-feeling)" The parental instinct and the tender emotion The instinct of reproduction The gregarious instinct The instinct of acquisition The instinct of construction CHAPTER IV SOME GENERAL OR NON-SPECIFIC INNATE TENDENCIES Sympathy or the sympathetic induction of the emotions Suggestion and suggestibility Contra-suggestion Imitation The tendency to play and the emulative impulse Proposed modification of Professor Groos's theory of play Habit Temperament CHAPTER V THE NATURE OF THE SENTIMENTS AND THE CONSTITUTION OF SOME OF THE COMPLEX EMOTIONS Mr. Shand's conception of a sentiment Physiological interpretation of this conception Complex emotions that do not imply the existence of sentiments Admiration Awe Reverence Gratitude Scorn Contempt Loathing Fascination Envy Complex emotions that imply the existence of sentiments Reproach Anxiety Jealousy Vengeful emotion Resentment Shame Bashfulness The nature of joyful and of sorrowful emotion Of pity Of happiness Of surprise CHAPTER VI THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENTIMENTS "Sentiments of three principal types: love, hate, and respect " The genesis of hate Parental love as a type of highly complex sentiment Active sympathy and its rôle in the genesis of the sentiment of affection between persons CHAPTER VII THE GROWTH OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND OF THE SELF-REGARDING SENTIMENT Illustration of behaviour unregulated by self-regarding sentiment The problem of moral conduct defined Genesis of ideas of self and of other selves Why are we so much influenced by praise and blame? This is the crucial problem for the theory of morals The solution furnished by the study of the growth of the self-regarding sentiment under the moulding influences of the social enviroment Regulation of conduct by regard for praise and blame implies only egoistic motives Complication of these motives by certain pseudo-altruistic motives and by quasi-altruistic motives springing from the extended self-regarding sentiment CHAPTER VIII THE ADVANCE TO THE HIGHER PLANE OF SOCIAL CONDUCT Defects of public opinion as supreme sanction of conduct "Moral judgments are of two kinds, original and imitative" The relation of emotion to moral judgment The moral sentiments and their relation to the moral tradition The influence of admired personalities The influence of native disposition on the growth of moral sentiments The synthesis of the abstract moral sentiments and the self-regarding sentiment The rôle of æsthetic admirationSOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER IX VOLITION The weaker seems to overcome the stronger impulse in moral effort Whence comes the energy that reinforces the weaker moral impulse? Free will and determinism "The moral difficulty of determinism very real, though commonly misstated" Volition distinguished from other modes of conation The immediate effects of volition The inhibitory view of volition criticised Volition defined and illustrated Its determining energy traced to the self-regarding sentiment Two types of hard choice The sentiment for self-control Character-its relation to the sentimentsSECTION II THE OPERATION OF THE PRIMARY TENDENCIES OF THE HUMAN MIND IN THE LIFE OF SOCIETIES CHAPTER X THE REPRODUCTIVE AND THE PARENTAL INSTINCTS Their relation to the birth-rate The rival influences of reason and of the social sanctions on the operation of these instincts No reason to suppose that these instincts are becoming weaker The extensions of the field of operation of the parental instinct beyond the family CHAPTER XI THE INSTINCT OF PUGNACITY Its operation among primitive peoples Its rôle in the evolution of human nature and human societies Its operation under the forms of revenge and moral indignation in the maintenance of social order The tendency for emulation to supplant pugnacity CHAPTER XII THE GREGARIOUS INSTINCT The pernicious influence of its crude operation among civilised peoples Its subtler operations in determining the structure of society CHAPTER XIII THE INSTINCTS THROUGH WHICH RELIGIOUS CONCEPTIONS AFFECT SOCIAL LIFE Fear Subjection Curiosity The parental instinct and the tender emotion "Their emotions blended in admiration, awe, reverence" The importance of the supernatural sanctions of custom How the tender emotion became incorporated in the sentiment for the Divine power Relation of religion to morality "Curiosity, the source Intuitional theoriesSOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER II THE SEX INSTINCT General sketch of the rôle of the sex instinct in reproduction The organisation of the sex instinct It is complex on its perceptual as well as on its executive side Lust and love Sex instinct as a spring of energy Its secondary social workings The development of the instinct Professor Freud's views examined Repression and sublimation Modesty and coyness Sexual inversions and perversions Co-education Sex enlightenment The problem of adolescence SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER III THE DERIVED EMOTIONS The derived emotions Confidence Hope Anxiety Despondency Despair Joy Regret Sorrow Remorse Their essential difference from the primary emotions They are not forces in the same sense as these Distress Varieties of temper The function of emotion SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER IV NOTES ON CHAPTERS III. TO IX. The instinct of laughter Humour Some minor instincts Supplementary remarks on play and suggestion The theory of the sentiments and of the development of character SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER V INSTINCTS OF MAN IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT DISCUSSION The present state of opinion on instinct Instinct in psycho-analytic theory Recent developments of German psychology: the Gestalt school SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER VI THE STRUCTURE OF CHARACTER SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER VII THE HORMIC PSYCHOLOGY "Teleology, intrinsic and extrinsic" "Two forms of teleological or purposive psychology, the hedonistic and the hormic" The hormic theory of action The adequacy of the hormic theory The advantages of the hormic theory Origins of the hormic psychology "SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER VIII A RECTIFICATION, A DIFFICULTY, AND AN ADDITION" The objection that emotion results only from arrest of tendency Acquired tastes and distastesINDEXSTRUCTURE OF THE CHARACTER OF JOHN DOE
A pioneering work in psychology, this enormously influential book served as a catalyst in the study of the foundations of social behavior. Ironically, its approach marked such a dramatic departure from contemporary trends that it stimulated little follow-up research at the time of its 1908 publication. In recent years, however, the author's ideas have been resurrected in sociobiological reasoning, making the republication of this systematic treatise particularly timely. McDougall's work grounds social behavior in biology, focusing on the individual and attributing most social behavior to instinct. This reasoning makes his work one of the first in modern psychology to take human motivation as its central concern. As one of the initial texts of social psychology, it assisted in laying the foundations of a new discipline, separating the field from its forerunners, sociology and general psychology. McDougall's emphasis on the instinctive basis of social phenomena also helped promote the individualistic approach typical of modern social psychology. Popular, long-lived, and ever-relevant, this landmark work is guaranteed a wide audience among teachers and students of psychology.