Since the Reformation in the sixteenth century, Lutheran traditions have impacted culture and politics in many societies. At the same time, Lutheran belief has had an effect on personal faith, morality, and ethics. Modern society, however, is quite different from that at the time of the Reformation.How should we evaluate Lutheran tradition in today's Western multicultural and post-Christian society? Is it possible to develop a Lutheran theological position that can be regarded as reasonable in a society that evidences a considerable weakening of the role of Christianity? What are the challenges raised by cultural diversity for a Lutheran theology and ethics? Is it possible to develop a Lutheran identity in a multicultural society, and is there any fruitful Lutheran contribution to the coexistence of diff erent religious and non-religious traditions in the future?